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ChapterQuestions

Page history last edited by PBworks 13 years, 11 months ago

Chapter 23

1) Both her work in Thailnad and the US had drainage problems.

2) The problem in Boston is mainly with overflow and old sewers.

3) A resivoir is a place that holds water that is going to be used, where as a lake is just a source of avaliable water.

4) Resivoirs must be higher above the earths surface so that gravity can be used to get the water to its final destination.

5) 525ft.

6) The velocity in the pipe increases.

7) The flow with in the pipes will decrease to much.

8) They survey building sites to see how the enviromnet will be affected by a certain type of structure being built there.

9) We sometimes in the summer have to use back up reservoirs but usually just the one can provide for a lot of the town.

 

Chapter 22

1) Nuclear power plants do not adversely affect the enviornment and they do not have a finite fuel source.

2) They check the electrical systems, the environmrnt surrounding it, and the disposal of nuclear wastes.

3) Nuclear reactions are the divsion of atoms into smaller elements. A chemical reaction like coal being burned is the breaking up or combining ot elments or compounds.

4) They control the reaction from becoming explosive and stop it from continuing.

5) Nuclear power is also clean, howver, it produces radioactive waste.

6) Nuclear fule is buried at differnet sites or is converted and used for the military or some other uses but not all plant condone this converting.

7) Microwave, bombs, fission reactions, catalysts, forming new elments, and decreasing thermodynamic differences in reactions.

Chapter 21

1) The US does not have many geothermal sites because it is not economically efficent.

2) Geothermal is one of the cleanest fuels and there is practically an umlimited amount of it.

3) There are no waste gases produced by geothermal and it has no negative effects on the enviornmnet.

4) Convection is the transfer of heat and energy through matter due to the difference of heat.

5) Convection transfers energy from the earth to areas of low energy.

6) Geothermal gets energy from the earth and it doesnt produce any products so there is not a lot of energy lost due to heat.

7) Biodiesel,Methanol, and solar.

8) I would make a turbine spin due to the change in the tides. They have already used this technique in the Bay of Fundi where teh change is extreme.

 

Chapter 20

1) It is a closed system because the working fluid stays with in the engine.

2) The engine needed to be quiet but it also needed to be powerful enough to provide enough energy for all the different functions of the wheelchair.

3) The engine wasn’t used in the wheelchair because technology for better batteries was developed that would create enough energy for the wheelchairs’ functions. The engine can be used to power a diesel truck when in idle or as a water purification system.

4) The term energy sink is more accurate because all of the energy is moving to wards that source and is leaving the system.

5) The reason this is is because the engine is working on temperature differentials to create pressure differentials by changing the volume so the greater the temperature differential the greater the amount of pressure the pistons are being exerted by.

6) The Stirling engine is good for the environment because it is a closed system so the only product that leaves the system is energy and it works off of renewable resources.

7) This would create the same working fluid to be used again by the engine meaning the working fluid if work was put in would never need an additional source of energy.

8) Using the same concept of it being fueled by a propane tank could use the Stirling engine as a generator to provide electricity for a home.

 

Chapter 19

1) Instead of the engine injecting hot fuel into the chamber to cause the ignition like in a diesel engine gasoline engines use spark plugs to ignite the pressurized mixture in the cylinder.

2) Diesel engines are hard to get started in cold climates and create black soot from incomplete combustion. An advantage of using biodiesel over gasoline is that the combustion will never increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

3) When the volume is held constant and the temperature of the system increases then the pressure will increase causing combustion used to do work.

4) You would need to know the acceleration of the piston and its mass to determine the force with which the piston is pushed down.

5) The temperature of the gas will decrease because the volume will be increased and the pressure will decrease.

6) A diesel engine may loose some of its energy to the environment in the exhaust because the combustion was not complete.

7) Hydrogen cars are an alternative fuel that works on the principle of bonding in a chemical reaction without the use of fossil fuels. Also biodiesel is a method that does not depend on fossil fuels rather on oil sources that are renewable.

 

Chapter 18

1) It is important that Mars SCIM brings back dust from Mars because it can tell the age and composition of the rocks on Mars. The dust particles may also carry evidence of whether or not there was life or is life on Mars.

2) They will test the spacecraft before its launch by they must test the materials used to build the craft in very hot and very cold temperatures to simulate the dramatic temperature differentials, which will occur. Also the material has to be tested under high levels of radiation to simulate the cosmic rays. Also it has to be tested to see if it can hold up under great pressure differentials.

3) Newton’s third law says that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. A rocket engine propels a spacecraft into outer space by the combustion or thrust created by the rocket acts on the gases and the gases under the rocket push back propelling the rocket into space.

4) When in space the pressure differential is negligible the fuel tank must adjust so that it can use its temperature and thus pressure differentials to do work.

5) Resistance is any force that opposes motion. I have explained fluid resistance when flying in an airplane.

6) A helicopter is a technology that uses Newton’s third law by the blades pushing the air down the air pushes back giving to helicopter lift. Another technology used in a helicopter using this law is the main shaft and tail rotor the shaft is spinning because of the blade spinning which spins the whole craft so the tail rotor pushes air the opposite direction to keep the craft straight. Another technology, which uses this law, is a motor on a motorboat the motor pushes water and the water pushes back sending the boat forward.

 

Chapter 17

1) They increasing the strength of the walls by making it out of a titanium alloy so that it can withstand the pressure it will be under.

Another redesign is eliminating steel weights used in ascending and descending by using a VBS system controlled by water pumps. Also the arm that is used on the Alvin will no longer move by each piston but rather by a computer coordinate system controlled inside the vessel.

2) The Alvin shows a relationship between engineers and scientists by

showing how information and appling science to problems guides engineers in how they need to design.

3) The air is leaving the ball going from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.

4) Compressibility of gases is used in the hydraluic presses that control Alvin, and incompresssibility of liquids is used in the vbs system which takes in and releases water to change the depth of the vessel.

5) one hundred square inches

6) Pneumatic systems use the principles of pressure causing gases to go from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. It also uses the law that pressure and volume are indirectly related.

7) It will be moved by a pneumatic system because I will not be able to take advantage in changes in pressure to use a hydraulic system.

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